In order to comprehensively do a good job in the prevention and control of new coronary pneumonia and other infectious diseases in the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Winter Paralympics (hereinafter referred to as the Beijing Winter Olympics), standardize the disinfection technology for key risk links, and effectively ensure the safe and smooth holding of the Beijing Winter Olympics, This specification is formulated in accordance with the “New Coronavirus Pneumonia Prevention and Control Plan (Eighth Edition)”, “General Rules for Disinfection of Foci of Foci” and other documents.
1. Scope of application
It is applicable to the standardized disinfection of all competition venues and non-competition venues during the Beijing Winter Olympics, and other venues related to the Winter Olympics can be implemented by reference.
The principle of disinfection
(1) General principles
All venues and venues should focus on environmental cleanliness, supplemented by preventive disinfection, focus on preventive disinfection of surfaces that are frequently touched by hands, and appropriately increase the frequency of cleaning and disinfection in areas with densely populated areas. Once a suspected case of infectious disease occurs, on the basis of taking effective isolation and control measures immediately, disinfection should be carried out according to the source of the epidemic.
(2) Follow the principles
1. Scientific principles. According to the different types of pathogens and disinfection objects, select appropriate and effective disinfection methods, and adjust the action concentration, action time and disinfection frequency of disinfection factors.
2. Safety principles. On the premise of ensuring the disinfection effect, the disinfection equipment and disinfection products used should be qualified products with little impact on the environment, low human injury, and light damage to items, especially the disinfection methods for the facilities and equipment involved in the competition activities, and should not be produced by the competition activities. interference.
3. The principle of moderation. According to the risk level of infectious diseases and disinfection requirements, scientific and reasonable disinfection should be carried out to prevent excessive disinfection. In principle, large-scale disinfection of outdoor environments is not allowed, air disinfection of external environments is not allowed, personnel are not directly disinfected, and chemical disinfection is not allowed under the condition of people. agent to sanitize the air.
3. Disinfection management requirements
(1) Organizational management
All venues and venues should implement the responsibilities of the four parties, clarify the main responsibility of disinfection work, establish and improve disinfection work systems, and refine disinfection work procedures.
(2) Material management
1. All venues and places should reserve necessary sanitary and anti-epidemic materials, sufficient quantities of disinfectants, disinfection equipment and protective equipment, and the prepared disinfection products should be qualified products that have been filed. Establish a registration system for use.
2. Disinfectants are classified and stored according to product requirements, and stored in a cool, dry place. Disinfection equipment is regularly maintained to ensure the facility is in good working order.
(3) Personnel management
1. Personnel performing disinfection should receive disinfection knowledge and skills training, and be proficient in the preparation of disinfectants, the operation of disinfection equipment, and disinfection methods for different objects and environments.
2. Disinfection personnel shall carry out disinfection in accordance with the requirements of this specification, and record truthfully after the disinfection work is completed (see the appendix for the table).
(4) Safety management
1. Personal protection should be done when preparing and using disinfectants, wearing overalls, disposable work caps, disposable latex gloves or nitrile gloves, and disposable medical surgical masks. Wear KN95/N95 medical protective masks during closed-loop disinfection, and wear medical protective face shields and goggles when necessary. Medical protective clothing, boot covers or rubber boots, and goggles should also be worn when an infectious disease outbreak occurs to disinfect the foci.
2. After disinfection, take off gloves as required, and wash or sanitize hands.
3. Disinfection should be carried out under unmanned conditions, and warning signs should be set up.
4. Key disinfection objects
The venues, places and other densely populated restaurants, conference rooms, lounges, toilets, elevators, transportation, etc. are the key disinfection areas. The parts that are frequently touched by the hands are the key disinfection objects, such as dining tables and chairs, tableware, buffet clips, etc., hotel front desks, various cashiers, item placement counters, etc., conference room pantries, water purifier faucets, kettles Handles, door handles, window handles, etc., vehicle door handles, handles, handrails, seats, etc., elevator buttons, escalator handrails, elevator doors, etc., bathroom faucets, countertops, toilet buttons, toilet covers, etc. The risk of ground contamination is small, cleaning is the main focus, and the frequency of disinfection can be appropriately reduced.
5. Disinfection method
(1) Physical disinfection
1. Sterilize by boiling. It is suitable for disinfection of tableware, fabrics and other heat-resistant items. When sterilizing, all items should be submerged in water, and the time will start when the water boils for 15 to 30 minutes. Do not add new items after the timer, otherwise the continuous heating time should be counted from the time when the items are re-added and boiled again.
2. Sterilize by circulating steam. It is suitable for disinfection of tableware, fabrics and other heat-resistant items. When sterilizing, the timer should start after the steam is full, and it will last for 15 to 30 minutes.
3. Far-infrared thermal disinfection. Suitable for disinfection of tableware. When using the far infrared sterilization box to sterilize tableware, the temperature should not be lower than 125°C for 15 minutes.
4. Ultraviolet irradiation disinfection. It is suitable for indoor air disinfection and direct irradiation object surface disinfection under unmanned conditions. When disinfecting indoor air, the ultraviolet lamp is directly irradiated by hanging or mobile type, and the irradiation time is at least 60 minutes; when the surface of the object is disinfected, the distance between the lamp tube and the contaminated surface is no more than 1 meter. If the radiation intensity meets the requirements, the irradiation time is at least 60 minutes. minute.
(2) Chemical disinfection
1. Sterilize by immersion. It is suitable for disinfection of moisture-resistant items such as tableware and fabrics. The disinfectant solution should be immersed in all items, and after the prescribed time, take it out, rinse it with clean water, and dry it. According to the stability of the disinfection solution and the pollution situation, the solution used should be replaced in time.
2. Wipe to disinfect. Suitable for surface disinfection of various objects. Dip the disinfectant solution with a rag to wipe the surface of the object to be disinfected. If necessary, wipe it with clean water after it has been used for a specified time to reduce possible corrosion.
3. Spray disinfection. It is suitable for disinfection of floors, walls and surfaces of various objects. Use an ordinary sprayer to spray and disinfect the disinfectant solution, so that the surface of the item is fully wetted for a specified time. Spraying should be up and then down, first left and then right.
4. Spray disinfection. It is suitable for disinfection of indoor air and surfaces of various objects. When using an ultra-low volume sprayer for indoor air disinfection, the doors and windows should be closed, and after being used for a specified time under unmanned conditions, ventilation should be performed, and the surface of the object should be wiped with clean water if necessary.
6. Selection and use of disinfectants
1. Disinfectants mainly include chlorine-containing disinfectants, alcohol-based disinfectants, chlorine dioxide disinfectants, peroxide-based disinfectants, iodine-containing disinfectants, bromine-containing disinfectants, phenol-based disinfectants and quaternary salt disinfectants. etc., its hygienic requirements and use methods should comply with “Hygienic Requirements for Chlorine Disinfectants XGB/T 36758-2018), “Hygienic Requirements for Alcohol Disinfectants MGB/T 26373- 2020), “Hygienic Standards for Chlorine Dioxide Disinfectants HGB /T 26366-2010), “Hygienic Requirements for Peroxide Disinfectants MGB/T 26371-2020), “Hygienic Requirements for Iodine-Containing Disinfectants MGB/T 26368-2020). “Australian Disinfectants Hygienic Requirements XGB/T 26370 -2020), “Sanitary Requirements for Phenolic Disinfectants XGB/T 27947 -2020), “Sanitary Requirements for Quaternary Salt Disinfectants MGB/T 26369-2020), and apply in accordance with Appendix 2 “Guidelines for the Use of Specific Chemical Disinfectants” .
2. Select an effective disinfectant according to the resistance of the pathogen to the disinfectant. If the pathogen is not identified, a high-efficiency disinfectant should be selected. All types of disinfectants except chlorhexidine can be used for preventive disinfection of the new coronavirus. Chlorine-containing disinfectants, chlorine dioxide, peroxide-based disinfectants, and iodine-containing disinfectants are suitable for disinfection of non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus .
3. Prepare the required concentration according to the active ingredient content of the disinfectant. Refer to Appendix 3 for the preparation process. The chemical disinfectant concentration test paper can be used for rapid determination of the content.
4. Strictly follow the scope and method of use specified in the disinfection product manual to correctly use the disinfectant and disinfection equipment.
5. Disinfectants with oxidizing effect can bleach and fade fabrics. Colored fabrics should be used with caution. Metals should be wiped clean with clean water after reaching the disinfection time.
6. Alcohol-based disinfectants are flammable and explosive, not suitable for air disinfection, and should not be used for large-scale spraying and wiping disinfection.
7. Requirements for regional allocation of disinfection materials
1. Disinfectant equipment storage areas should be set up in each venue and place to avoid direct sunlight.
2. Hand sanitizers and disinfectant wipes are provided at the entrances of all venues and venues.
3. There are a sufficient number of faucets in the bathroom sink, equipped with hand sanitizer or hand sanitizer, and toilet paper.
4. Before picking up the meal, the restaurant shall set up a fixed area with hand sanitizer.
5. A special area is set up at the entrance of the meeting room, equipped with hand sanitizer dispensers and disinfectant wipes.
6. Equipped with hand sanitizer and disinfectant wipes at the elevator entrance or in the elevator.
8. Preventive disinfection methods for different objects
1. Air. The indoor ventilation is mainly based on ventilation. In the poorly ventilated room, an air sterilizer that meets the general hygiene requirements for air sterilizers (WS/T 648-2019) can be used and used in accordance with the product instructions. Unmanned conditions were used for sterilization by UV light irradiation for 60 minutes each time.
2. The surface of the object. The available chlorine content is 250mg/L~500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant and 50mg/L~100mg/L chlorine dioxide disinfectant for wiping and spraying disinfection. You can also use other disinfectants that can be used for surface disinfection to wipe and disinfect. After 15 to 30 minutes, wipe it with clean water. After disinfection, it should be ventilated to prevent the disinfectant from causing harm to personnel. When ventilation cannot be guaranteed, use a less irritating disinfectant such as seasoning salt disinfectant for disinfection. Small items can be wiped twice with 75% alcohol.
3. Surfaces such as floors and walls that may be contaminated. It can be wiped or sprayed with 500mg/L ~ 1000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, and the action time is not less than 15 minutes to 30 minutes, and a constant sprayer should be used for spraying. After disinfection, it should be ventilated to prevent the disinfectant from causing harm to personnel. When ventilation cannot be guaranteed, use a less irritating disinfectant such as seasoning salt disinfectant for disinfection.
4. Contaminants such as secretions, vomitus, and excrement. Contaminants can be carefully removed by dipping 5000mg/L~10000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant with disposable water-absorbing materials (such as gauze, rags, etc.) to avoid direct contact with pollutants. Wipe and disinfect with liquid for at least 30 minutes. Containers containing pollutants can be immersed in 5000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant for 30 minutes and then cleaned.
5. Dining utensils. If the used tableware needs to be transported outside the closed loop for disinfection, the tableware should be sealed and marked as the tableware used in the closed loop. When sterilizing, first remove the residue, and after cleaning, the first choice is boiling disinfection or circulating steam disinfection for 15 minutes, or soaking and disinfecting with 250mg/L~500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant for 30 minutes, and then rinse with water.
6. Clothes, bedding, towels and other fabrics. Wash it with detergent and then dry it directly in the sun. It can also be sterilized by boiling or circulating steam for 15 minutes. Towel fabrics can be soaked in 250mg/L~500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant for 15 minutes~30 minutes, and then washed with water. Work clothes should be disinfected every day after use. Dry heat disinfection can be used to make them stand at a constant temperature of about 80°C for at least 2 hours.
7. Sanitary utensils such as mops and rags. The used mops and rags should be soaked and disinfected with 500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant for 30 minutes. After cleaning, they should be dried and used. Mops and rags should be dedicated to the special area to avoid cross-contamination.
8. Hand hygiene. When hands are obviously contaminated, use soap or hand sanitizer, use running water, and wash hands correctly according to the seven-step hand washing method; when there is no visible contamination, use alcohol-containing quick-drying hand sanitizer to disinfect hands. If you come into contact with suspicious pollutants during disinfection work Hand sanitizer should be performed immediately.
9. Toilets. Surfaces such as door handles and faucets that are frequently touched by hands can be wiped and disinfected with 500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant or other disinfectants that can be used for surface disinfection. After 15 to 30 minutes, wipe them with clean water. The floor and toilet can be wiped and disinfected with 1000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant.
10. Van elevator. Regularly wipe the elevator buttons with alcohol twice a day for disinfection. After the daily operation, wipe and disinfect the elevator surface and buttons, inner wall, floor and escalator handrails with 250mg/L~500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, or other disinfectants that can be used for surface disinfection, and the action time is 15 minutes to 30 minutes. minute. After disinfection, wipe with clean water to remove residual disinfectant.
11. Transportation. Wipe or spray with 500mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant solution until the surface is wet, and wipe it off with water after 30 minutes. Fabrics, cushions, pillows and sheets are sanitized by fabric. After disinfection, it should be ventilated to prevent the disinfectant from causing harm to personnel; when ventilation cannot be guaranteed, use a less irritating disinfectant such as seasoning salt disinfectant for disinfection.
12. Temporary storage sites for garbage. It must be disinfected regularly and sprayed with 1000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant.
13. Low temperature environment. Low-temperature disinfection products should meet the requirements, be tested in accordance with the inspection items required by the “Low-temperature Disinfectant Hygiene and Safety Evaluation Technology”, and complete the record in accordance with the “Sanitary and Safety Evaluation Regulations of Disinfection Products”. Chlorine-containing disinfectants are used in accordance with the “Notice on Printing and Distributing Guidelines for the Use of Two Chlorine-containing Low-Temperature Disinfectants” (Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism Zongfa ).
9. Terminal disinfection method
The terminal disinfection of the foci shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant requirements of the “New Coronavirus Pneumonia Prevention and Control Program (Eighth Edition)”, “General Rules for Disinfection of Foci of Foci MGB 19193-2015) and “Technical Specifications for Disinfection” (2002 Edition).
Doors and windows should be closed for air disinfection, and disinfectants such as 0.2% to 0.5% peracetic acid solution or 2% to 5% hydrogen peroxide or 500mg/L chlorine dioxide are used for spray disinfection under unmanned conditions, and the effect is 60%. Open the window for ventilation after a few minutes.
For the surface and the ground, an effective disinfection method should be selected according to different disinfection objects. The surface of ordinary objects can be wiped or wiped with 1000mg/L~2000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, 500mg/L chlorine dioxide disinfectant or other ingredients. Spray and disinfect, wipe clean with clean water after 30 minutes of action.
X. On-site disinfection evaluation
On-site disinfection evaluation includes process evaluation and disinfection effect evaluation. All on-site disinfections shall be subject to process evaluation, and records shall be made and kept as required. Disinfection process evaluation mainly includes disinfection products, disinfection operations, disinfection work plans and other links. Only when the evaluation content meets the requirements of relevant regulations, standards, guidelines or plans can the disinfection process be judged as qualified.
Preventive disinfection with a wide range of disinfection and long duration, as well as terminal disinfection in foci with great social impact, should be evaluated for disinfection effect, mainly for the disinfection effect of indoor air and the surface of environmental objects. The evaluation method was implemented with reference to the “Standards for On-site Disinfection During the New Coronary Pneumonia Epidemic” (WS/T 774-2021), “General Rules for Disinfection of Foci of Foci” (GB 19193-2015), and “Technical Specifications for Disinfection X2002 Edition).
Guidelines for the use of specific chemical disinfectants
1. Alcohol-based disinfectants
1.1 Active ingredients
The ethanol content is 70% to 80% (v/v), and the alcohol-containing hand sanitizer is >60% (v/v). The compounded product can be based on the product specification.
1.2 Scope of application
Mainly used for hand and skin disinfection, and can also be used for disinfection of smaller surfaces.
1.3 How to use
Hygienic hand disinfection: spray evenly on hands or rub and rub hands 1 to 2 times for 1 minute.
Surgical hand disinfection: wipe twice for 3 minutes.
Skin disinfection: Rub the skin surface twice for 3 minutes.
Surface disinfection of small objects: wipe the surface of the object twice for 3 minutes.
If ethanol is used alone for hand disinfection, it is recommended to use hand cream after disinfection.
Disinfectant for external use should not be taken orally, and should be placed in a place that is not easily accessible by children.
Flammable, keep away from ignition sources.
Use with caution in those allergic to alcohol.
Store in a cool, dry and ventilated place away from light.
It is not suitable for sterilizing the surface of fat-soluble objects, and cannot be used for air sterilization.
2. Chlorine-containing disinfectants
2.1 Active ingredients
In terms of available chlorine, the content is expressed in mg/L or %, 20% of bleaching powder, 55% of sodium dichloroisooxyurate, and 84 disinfectant according to the product instructions, usually 2% to 5%.
2.2 Scope of application
It is suitable for disinfection of surfaces, fabrics and other contaminated items, as well as water, fruits and vegetables, and food and drink utensils.
In addition to the above uses, hypochlorous acid disinfectant can also be used for disinfection of indoor air, surfaces of secondary water supply equipment and facilities, hands, skin and mucous membranes.
2.3 How to use
When disinfecting the surface of objects, use a concentration of 500 mg/L; when disinfecting a foci, use a concentration of 1000 mg/L on the surface; when there are obvious pollutants, use a concentration of 10,000 mg/L; when disinfecting other indoor air and water, follow the product instructions.
Disinfectants for external use should not be taken orally, and should be kept out of the reach of children.
Masks and gloves should be worn when preparing and dispensing high-concentration disinfectant; gloves should be worn when using to avoid contact with the skin. If accidentally splashed into the eyes, rinse immediately with water, and seek medical attention in severe cases.
It has a corrosive effect on metals, and has bleaching and fading effects on the system. Metal and colored fabrics should be used with caution.
Strong oxidant, must not be in contact with flammable materials, and should be kept away from ignition sources.
Store in a cool and dry place, sealed and stored, and shall not be stored and transported together with reducing substances.
The packaging should be marked with the corresponding safety warning signs.
Use in accordance with the scope of use, method of use, validity period and safety test results indicated in the specific product manual.
3. Chlorine dioxide disinfectant
3.1 Active ingredients
After activation, the chlorine dioxide content is 2000mg/L, and there is no need to activate the product according to the product specification.
3.2 Scope of application
It is suitable for disinfection of water (drinking water, hospital sewage), object surfaces, eating and drinking utensils, food processing tools and equipment, fruits and vegetables, medical equipment (including endoscopes) and air.
3.3 How to use
When disinfecting the surface of objects, use a concentration of 50mg/L~100mg/L for 10 minutes~15 minutes; when disinfecting drinking water, use a concentration of 1mg/L~2mg/L for 15 minutes~30 minutes; when disinfecting hospital sewage, Use concentration 20mg/L ~ 40mg/ L, act for 30 minutes ~ 60 minutes; when indoor air disinfection, according to product instructions.
Disinfectants for external use should not be taken orally, and should be kept out of the reach of children.
It should not be mixed with other disinfectants, alkalis or organic substances.
This product has a bleaching effect; it is corrosive to metals.
Wear gloves when using to avoid contact with the skin and inhalation of the high-concentration disinfectant. If accidentally splashed into the eyes, immediately rinse with water, and seek medical attention in severe cases.
4. Peroxide-based disinfectants
4.1 Active ingredients
Hydrogen peroxide disinfectant: the mass fraction of hydrogen peroxide (calculated as H2O2) is 3% to 6%.
Peracetic acid disinfectant: Peracetic acid (calculated as C2H4O3) mass fraction 15%～21%.
4.2 Scope of application
It is suitable for disinfection of object surfaces, indoor air, skin wounds, and corrosion-resistant medical devices.
4.3 How to use
Object surface: 0.1%~0.2% peracetic acid or 3% hydrogen peroxide, spray or soak for 30 minutes for disinfection, then rinse with clean water to remove residual disinfectant.
Indoor air disinfection: 0.2% peracetic acid or 3% hydrogen peroxide, use aerosol spray method, the dosage is calculated according to 10mL/m3 ~ 20mL/m3 (lg/m3), and ventilate after 60 minutes of disinfection; 15% peracetic acid can be used for heating and fumigation, the dosage is calculated according to 7mL/m3, and ventilation is performed after 1~2h of fumigation.
Skin wound disinfection: 3% hydrogen peroxide disinfectant, directly rinse the skin surface for 3 to 5 minutes.
Disinfection of medical devices: high-level disinfection of corrosion-resistant medical devices, soak in 6% hydrogen peroxide for 120 minutes, or rinse with 0.5% peracetic acid for 10 minutes, and use sterile water to rinse to remove residual disinfectant after disinfection.
Liquid peroxide-based disinfectants are corrosive, irritating to eyes, mucous membranes and skin, and have the risk of burns. When carrying out disinfection operations, personal protective equipment should be worn.
In case of container rupture or leakage, flush with plenty of water, or absorb the residual liquid with sand or inert absorbent, and take corresponding safety precautions.
It is flammable and explosive. It will cause combustion and explosion in case of open flame and high heat. When it comes into contact with reducing agent, there is a danger of combustion and explosion in case of metal powder.
5. Iodine-containing disinfectants
5.1 Active ingredients
Iodine tincture: available iodine 18g/L~22g/L, ethanol 40%~50%.
Iodophor: available iodine 2g/L~10g/L.
5.2 Scope of application
Iodine tincture: It is suitable for disinfection of the skin at the surgical site, injection and puncture site, and the skin of the umbilical cord of the newborn. It is not suitable for the skin disinfection of mucous membranes and sensitive parts.
Iodophor: suitable for surgical hand and forearm disinfection, mucosal washing and disinfection, etc.
5.3 How to use
Iodine tincture: Dip this product with sterile cotton swab or sterile gauze, wipe the skin of the disinfection site for more than 2 times, and then wipe with cotton swab or sterile gauze dipped in 75% medical ethanol to remove iodine. Use available iodine 18mg/L-22mg/L, the action time is 1 minute to 3 minutes.
Disinfection of hands and forearms before surgery: On the basis of routine hand brushing, use sterile gauze dipped in concentrated iodophor to wipe evenly from the fingertips to the skin of the forearm and the lower 1/3 of the upper arm; or directly dipped in a sterile brush Take the concentration of iodophor and brush from the fingertips to the skin of the lower 1/3 of the forearm and upper arm, then wipe dry. Use available iodine 2g/L～10g/L, the action time is 3 minutes～5 minutes.
Mucosal flushing and disinfection: The iodophor dilution solution containing available iodine 250mg/L~500mg/L directly rinses or wipes the disinfection site.
Disinfectant for external use, it is forbidden to take orally.
Keep out of reach of children.
Use with caution in those allergic to iodine.
Sealed, protected from light, and stored in a cool and ventilated place.
6. Phenolic disinfectants
6.1 Active ingredients
According to the product manual.
6.2 Scope of application
Suitable for disinfection of surfaces and fabrics.
6.3 How to use
The surface of objects and fabrics should be wiped and disinfected with 1000mg/L~2000mg/L of active ingredients for 15 minutes to 30 minutes.
Phenol and cresol are toxic to the human body. When disinfecting the environment and object surfaces, personal protection should be taken. If a high-concentration solution comes into contact with the skin, it can be wiped off with ethanol or rinsed with plenty of water.
After the disinfection is completed, the surfaces, fabrics and other objects to be treated should be wiped or washed with clean water to remove the residual disinfectant.
It cannot be used for the disinfection of bacterial bud-contaminated items, and it cannot be used for high-level disinfection of medical equipment. Phenol and cresol are the main bactericidal components. Disinfectants are not suitable for skin and mucous membrane disinfection.
7. Seasonal salt disinfectant
7.1 Active ingredients
According to the product manual.
7.2 Scope of application
Suitable for disinfection of the environment and surfaces (including fibers and fabrics).
It is suitable for hygienic hand disinfection, and the disinfectant compounded with alcohol can be used for surgical hand disinfection.
7.3 How to use
Object surface disinfection: when there is no obvious pollutant, the concentration is 1000mg/L; when there is obvious pollutant, the concentration is 2000mg/L.
Sanitary hand disinfection: use a concentration of 1000mg/L when cleaning, and use a concentration of 2000mg/L when polluting.
Disinfectants for external use should not be taken orally. Keep out of reach of children.
Avoid exposure to organics and antagonists. Can not be used with soap or other anionic detergents, nor can it be used with iodine or peroxides (such as potassium pererate, hydrogen peroxide, sulfa powder, etc.).