Recently, there have been frequent occurrences of collective events such as norovirus causing gastrointestinal inflammation. How to prevent the arrival of Norovirus?
Entering autumn and winter, it is the high season of infectious diseases such as hand, foot and mouth disease, influenza and noro. The campus is a key place. Students are susceptible people. It is especially important to do school health and prevention and control of infectious diseases. Small details reflect big problems, and washing hands frequently is an effective way to block the spread and spread of infectious diseases. Noro virus high incidence, you need to know the following knowledge!
Noro virus high incidence, you need to know the following knowledge!
1. What are the routes of Norovirus transmission?
Norovirus is highly infectious, and only 18 virus particles are needed to infect the human body. The main vector is food contaminated with feces and water; norovirus can also be present on aerosols and surfaces, through infected patients, direct contact with contaminated items and airborne.
2. What are the clinical features of Norovirus infection?
(1) The incubation period of Norovirus infection is generally 24 to 48 hours, the shortest 12 hours, and the longest is 72 hours;
(2) Sudden onset of infection, the main symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle pain and non-blood diarrhea. Children with vomiting are more common, feces are thin water or watery stools, no mucus pus and blood, fecal test white blood cell negative, no RBC, vomiting symptoms of patients with primary infection are significantly more than secondary infection;
(3) Some infected people only show symptoms of vomiting. It is often called “winter vomiting” in clinical practice. Headache, mild fever, and chills are also common. In severe cases, dehydration symptoms occur.
(4) Self-limiting disease, no sequelae after the disease;
(5) The same type of virus antibody protection can be maintained for 8 weeks to 6 months, and can be repeatedly infected.
3. What are the diagnostic criteria for Norovirus infection?
(1) Suspected cases
Defecation ≥ 3 times / day, accompanied by trait changes (salted, watery stools, etc.);
Defecation <3 times, but with stool changes and vomiting symptoms (children with vomiting as the main performance);
Vomiting (≥2 times) was the main symptom.
(2) Clinical diagnosis cases:
A suspected case meets the following one as a clinically diagnosed case
The incubation period is 12 to 48 hours;
Normally, the microscopic examination WBC<15, and no RBC;
Eliminate common pathogens, parasites and other pathogen infections.
(3) Laboratory confirmed cases
Septic, anal swab or vomit specimens of suspected cases/clinical cases are positive for viral nucleic acid detection or positive for antigen detection.
Attention to differential diagnosis: Norovirus gastroenteritis and bacterial, fungal and protozoal diarrhea identification; identification of other viral gastroenteritis. Among the common viral gastroenteritis, rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus gastroenteritis are mainly found in infants and young children, and the course of disease is longer, mostly for about 1 week.
4. What are the treatment points?
(1) symptomatic treatment
At present, there is no specific antiviral drug, and symptomatic treatment or supportive therapy is adopted. Antibiotics are not needed, and the prognosis is good.
Dehydration is the main cause of death of Norovirus gastroenteritis. Therefore, serious cases, especially children and infirm, should be infused or oral rehydration in time to correct water, electrolyte imbalance and acid-base balance disorders. Prevention of dehydration is the key. Children with mild disease can take oral rehydration salts recommended by WHO. Note: dosage (ml) = (50 ~ 75) ml x body weight (kg), served within 4h;
(2) The following conditions suggest that oral rehydration may fail:
Continuous, frequent, large amount of diarrhea: 10 ~ 20ml / kg / h;
Insufficient intake of oral saline solution;
Frequent, severe vomiting, if 4h, the child still has dehydration performance, adjust the rehydration program (reassess the dehydration status of the child after 4h, and then choose the appropriate program). Note: Estimate the amount of ORS solution by age only if you do not know the weight of the child.
5. How to prevent and care
(1) Nursing care of children
Children with norovirus-infected diarrhea, or a high degree of suspicion of norovirus infection, need to pay attention to hand hygiene (Innovirus can be present on the surface of aerosols and objects, through contact with infected patients, direct contact with contamination Items and airborne), more ventilation (such as regularly opening doors and windows, etc.), to maintain indoor air circulation, indoor temperature and humidity are appropriate.
(2) Observing the condition
Pay attention to whether the child has new symptoms, signs, or whether the original symptoms and signs are aggravated or worsened, and pay attention to whether there is a critical signal; regularly monitor the electrolyte of the child for disorder, and replenish fluid as appropriate.
(3) pay attention to the disinfection of items
Items that are in contact with children’s vomit and feces, promptly cleaned and disinfected, indirectly through contaminated hands, towels, clothing, toys, medical equipment, etc.
(4) About prevention
Medical staff should take precautionary measures according to strict standards. When treating and treating children with Norovirus infection (or highly suspected children), wear masks and gloves. Dispose of gloves in time to avoid wearing contaminated gloves and touching the environment. table.
Home care: During the epidemic of Norovirus, less crowded places, clean and hygienic; toys, used milk, other clothing and other daily necessities should be thoroughly disinfected; uninfected children should pay attention to Wash hands frequently, baby pacifiers, bottles are used after boiling and disinfection, and children’s toys are regularly cleaned.
Prevention|Do these points and help your baby stay away from Norovirus threats!
At present, there is no vaccine or special treatment for Norovirus infection, so prevention is very important. Pay attention to personal hygiene, strengthen diet, drink water, and stay away from pathogens is the key to prevent disease.
1. Pay attention to personal hygiene and wash your hands frequently, especially before and after meals. After going out to go home, wash your hands with soap and hand soap. Parents should teach their children to “seven steps of washing”, and they should not be exposed to water.
2, Eat cooked food, fruit and vegetables washed and then eat, drink boiled water.
3, Regardless of adults or children, during the home of Norovirus patients, every day with a chlorine disinfectant to thoroughly disinfect the environment surface often contact, such as the table, door handles and so on. During the period of illness and within 3 days after the symptoms disappear, the tableware should be placed separately from the family and eat and use public chopsticks.
4. Wear disposable masks and gloves when nursing patients. Do not use them repeatedly after using them.